Six clusters of Islamophobia:

1. Shouting abuse, pushing, spitting, pulling hijabs from Muslim women, various forms of beating which can culminate in murder. What is common to all these incidents is that they target Muslims, the violence is unprovoked and they occur in public...


....settings such as streets or parks.

2. Attacks on properties considered to be linked to Muslims; mosques, cemeteries, buisness premises. These attacks may include vandalism (broken windows, hurling pig's head into mosques, graffiti), arson, and desecration of Muslim graves.


3. Organised intimidation involving a number of persons acting in concert to intimidate a population that is perceived to be Muslims or friendly to Muslims. Intimidating may include marches through areas with large Muslim populations, advertising campaigns warning of the....

...danger of Islam, as well as, Qur'an burning or demonstrations against the building of mosques or cultural centres. What distinguishes these actions is the degree of coordination requiring the expenditure of social and financial capital.


4. Institutionalized Islamophobia: those perceived as Muslims receive less favorable treatment than their peers in comparable positions within the same organisations.
Manifestations: harassment, bullying, pointed jokes, distribution of tasks, and assessments of performance in...

...which those considered to be Muslims are subject to adverse treatment or comment.
Example: an implemented dress code placing greater burdens upon those perceived to be Muslims than other staff in the same organization.
Islamophobia, in this case is not necessarily directed...

...or coordinated by a state project, rather its occurrence is a subject of the absence of robust anti- discrimination legislation or culture, or the inclusion of Muslims within the ambit of such measures even if they exist.

5. Sustained and systematic elaboration of comments... the public domain that disparge Muslim and/or Islam. Dispargement could be more or less subtle.
Examples: publishing the Qur'an with Muhammad listed as the author or recycling medieval Christian polemics as "truth" about Islam or reading specific crimes as being motivated.. Islam or Muslim culture. This form of Islamophobia could be articulated on internet hate sites, newspapers, magazines, or other media. It may be factual or fictional programs. It can also inform policy and opinion, and may be grounds for state interventions and regulations.


It could also be part of the common sense of a society- the set of unexamined assumptions and beliefs that circulate in any society.

6. The state plays an active role including intensification of surveillance of Muslim populations using technology, agent provocateurs, and paid..

...informers. Surveillance may be carried out by a form of secret police (that is, state agencies tasked with clandestine operating procedures). In addition, there is Islamophobia of the criminal justice system in which the deemed to be Muslims are treated less favorably than...

...others. This can be the result of differential sentencing, difference in the frequency of being stopped and searched by police officers. State policies could also be used to restrict expression of Muslimness- for example, limiting the building of mosques, regulating Muslim....


...dress (bans on the burqa). What makes these activities Islamophobic is the degree to which they place extra burdens on sections of the population which are mostly Muslims.

~ "A measure of Islamophobia" by
S. Sayiid